People are scared of change, and the role of the HR manager is to remove this fear and replace it with determination. What do you think? How are human resources managed in your own work environment or organisation? Do you agree with the above, or do you have anything to add? If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our Free Newsletter for the latest posts on Management models and methods. Talent development, part of human resource development, is the process of changing an organization, its employees, and its stakeholders, using planned and unplanned learning, in order to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage for the organization.
What this essentially means is that human resources departments, in addition to their other responsibilities of job design, hiring, training, and employee interaction, are also tasked with helping others improve their career opportunities.
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This process requires investment in growing talent. It is often more economical in the long run to improve on existing employee skill sets, as opposed to investing in new employees. Therefore, talent development is a trade-off by which human resources departments can effectively save money through avoiding the opportunity costs of new employees. Career-path management requires human resource management to actively manage employee skills in pursuit of successful professional careers. The results of successful career planning are personal fulfillment, a work and life balance, goal achievement, and financial security.
A career encompasses the changes or modifications in employment through advancement during the foreseeable future. There are many definitions by management scholars of the stages in the managerial process.
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The following classification system with minor variations is widely used:. Human resource development HRD is the central framework for the way in which a company leverages an effective human resources department to empower employees with the skills for current and future success. The responsibility of the human resources department in regard to employee development primarily pertains to varying forms of training, educational initiatives, performance evaluation, and management development.
This is achieved through two specific human resource objectives: training and development TD and organizational development OD. Training and development, as stated above, is primarily individualistic in nature and focused on ensuring that employees develop throughout their careers to capture more opportunity. Organizational development must be balanced during this process, ensuring that the company itself is leveraging these evolving human resources to maximum efficiency.
Depending too heavily upon TD may result in an organization incapable of capitalizing on employee skills, while focusing too much on OD will generate a company culture adverse to professional development. Therefore, human resources departments are central to empowering employees to take successful career paths while maintaining an organizational balance. The first step of career management is setting goals.
Before doing so the person must be aware of career opportunities and should also know his or her own talents and abilities. The time horizon for the achievement of the selected goals or objectives—short-term, intermediate, or long-term—will have a major influence on their formulation. The modern nature of work means that individuals may now more than in the past have to revisit the process of making career choices and decisions more frequently. As employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development to maintain and enhance their employability.
Promotion : A promotion often comes through effective career-path management. Skip to main content. Human Resource Management. Search for:. Core Functions of Human Resource Management Employee Recruitment Recruitment is the process of identifying an organizational gap and attracting, evaluating, and hiring employees to fill that role.
Key Takeaways Key Points Recruitment is the process of attracting, evaluating, and hiring employees for an organization. The recruitment process includes four steps: job analysis, sourcing, screening and selection, and onboarding. There are various recruitment approaches, such as relying on in-house personnel, outsourcing, employment agencies, executive search firms, social media, and recruitment services on the Internet.
With a global marketplace for prospective employees, and the enormity of data and applications supplied via the Internet, HR professionals are challenged with filtering vast streams of data to find the best fit. Key Terms recruitment : The process of recruiting employees. Employee Selection Selection is the process—based on filtering techniques that ensure added value—of choosing a qualified candidate for a position. Learning Objectives Break down the human resource selection process as organizations pursue new employee talent.
Paying inadequate attention to the staffing and selection practices was among the challenges more emphasized in this study, which relates to several distinct domains. First of all, lack of comprehensive, rigorous, and validated hiring tests in one hand, and recruiting not based on meritoriousness on the other hand, are defined as the two main challenges in staffing processes, especially in public sector. Hence, under these circumstances, selecting talents, who play a critical role in the pharmaceutical industry, is unlikely to achieve Second, the presence of the educational gap between universities and the industry results in dealing with unskilled and unqualified workforce.
In addition to the reasons mentioned above, there are other issues deterring workforce from seeking job in the industry such as lower income compared to other positions and existing discriminations in promotion systems; this forces mangers to hire unqualified candidates over time. Due to high costs of research and development in pharmaceutical companies, succession in competitive markets depends highly on the way talented staffs are retained in the firms In addition, there is a vast range of literature highlighting the way through which companies can retain talents and approach to succession planning 41 , Our findings about lack of succession plans are in agreement with a recent study performed in Iranian health sector Given the important role of medicines in providing societies with health, there are strict regulatory controls and requirements in the pharmaceutical industry or medicinal production procedures in almost all countries; consequently, technical education standards are developed to meet the requirements Commonly, a technical manager is responsible of fulfilling these requirements; however, appointing a technical manager who might not be familiar with the HRM approaches results in focusing on technical pharmaceutical-oriented trainings only, rather than non-technical ones.
Furthermore, in most Iranian companies, majority of the training programs offered to the staff are using existed potentials inside the organization instead of using external resources, while in such a strongly competitive industry, managers have to be sufficiently trained about such skills as contracting, negotiation, commercialization, to name a few Undoubtedly, compensation system is one of the major HRM functions which contribute largely to the success of companies 46 , Findings indicated that the compensation systems suffer from critical obstacles rooted back in the economic conditions of companies which deprive employees of fair compensation packages.
On the other hand, lees attention to various reward management strategies in the organization results in the inefficient punishment and encouragement procedures which impede the motivation of the employees. Additionally, our results confirmed the findings of previous studies, indicating that in Iran, workforce would be promoted mostly based on seniority rather than merits It is largely believed that failing to pay adequate attention to meritocracy and a promotion system would weaken dynamism and keep workforce unproductive.
While it is well-acknowledged that information sharing, empowerment factors, and collaborations can significantly contribute to the innovation capabilities and organizational performance 33 , 51 , and 52 , our findings demonstrated that such factors were not well approached in the industry.
This is mainly because of lack of knowledge management systems KMS in storing, sharing, and utilizing the existing knowledge, while such systems are greatly emphasized by scholars in order to harmonize knowledge activities across a company 50 , One of the ultimate goals of KM is to share knowledge among knowledge workers who play critical role in a knowledge-intensive industry like pharmaceutical one It seems that as the capital structure of the most Iranian pharmaceutical companies is state-owned, there would be too difficult to compete in a quite free market, resulting in forming a generic market and highly restricted pricing systems.
We believe that although these factors are specific to our research context, they potentially influence HRM practices of all other industries. In this study, an attempt was made to use thematic analysis to explore HRMPs challenges surrounding pharmaceutical firms in Iran as a developing country.
Our findings were categorized into three main groups based on AMO ability, motivation, and opportunity model. With respect to the ability, staffing challenges, training as well as development challenges, and talent management challenges were the three themes identified. Regarding the motivation, the deficiency of compensation packages, inefficient performance management, and promotion challenges were emphasized by the participants. As far as the opportunity was concerned, two themes were generated: communication as well as information sharing challenges and insufficient attention to empowerment factors.
In addition to the mentioned themes, some miscellaneous challenges were recognized, including the imperfective HRM governance, the organizational culture obstacles, and the nature of the industry. This study revealed some HRMPs that should be taken into account in developing countries and highlighted barriers for institutionalizing such practices given socio-cultural setting in these countries. Finally, it can be concluded that being theoretically aware of HRM concepts, Iranian top managers are gradually trying to implement HRMPs in their organizations.
Briefly, in the recent years, as it is reflected in the previous research, the Iranian organizations have begun to pay further attention to HRM, and to work on the development of people It is also understood that the Iranian HRM has considerable similarities with those of other developing countries in terms of, for instance, rigid and hierarchical organizations, unplanned decision-making, ascription-based promotion, and lack of performance-orientation in compensation and appraisal 18 , The authors would like to disclose their sincere thanks to all the interviewees from the Iranian pharmaceutical industry who participated in this study.
In addition, the study satisfies the pharmaceutical industry practitioners undergoing intensive competition and endeavoring for sustainable competitiveness. In this regard, our study serves several important implications for managerial practice from an HRM viewpoint:. First, the members of board of company directors and other top managers must realize the fundamental role played by HRM in the success of their organizations and change their perception of a traditional HR to a strategic view.
Second, CEOs should consider their HR departments as the most important unit of the firm that can serve as a great, valuable source to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Fourth, if HR managers pay enough attention to the staffing and selection processes of their organizations and apply rigorous and validated hiring tests, they can be assured too much to their prosperity. In other words, the managers should consider adopting a meritocratic approach in their staffing processes to achieve organizational successfulness.
Fifth, the senior managers of the pharmaceutical industry should be aware of the importance of non-technical training programs and attempt to extend this kind of educations to different levels of the employees. In this regard, training of the skills such as problem solving, interpersonal relations, and negotiation techniques have been considered in this study. Sixth, line managers should realize their undeniably critical role in the implementation of HRMPs in the firms and attempt to improve their knowledge about HRM so that they would be able to manage HR performance effectively.
Seventh, HR managers and other top managers of the organizations should be aware of different aspects of HRM and pay enough attention to all of its functions. Eighth, the results of this study shed light on practices that must be undertaken by managers, especially in the pharmaceutical sector, and the ways through which the managers can increase the benefits of investing in HRMPs in their organizations.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Pharm Res.
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Find articles by Jafar Babapour. Find articles by Arian Gholipourb. Find articles by Gholamhossein Mehralian. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar; Accepted Dec. Copyright notice. Abstract Human resource management has increasingly become one of the most important challenging issues in the pharmaceutical industry in general and in developing countries in particular to increase the access of societies to needed medicines.
Introduction In the present knowledge-based economy, firms attempt to attain organizational goals with optimal exploitation of their resources. Theoretical background Based upon the theory of resource-based view, a large number of studies have paid great deals of attention to this theory in which it is believed that, among the entire spectrum of intangible assets available in a firm, human capital is the most important resource to achieve organizational performance and less competitive than other intangible assets. Methods As mentioned in the previous section, the aim of this study is to recognize the challenges of HRMPs in the pharmaceutical industry.
The qualitative methodology implemented in this study involves the following steps: Choosing analytical approach To answer the study question, we needed to understand opinions, experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of the individuals who had actually confronted the challenges and obstacles of HRMPs in Iranian pharmaceutical firms. Data gathering The required data in this study were collected via interviews. Data analysis process Once finished with the interviews and their transcription, two of the researchers began to generate initial codes and cross checked them according to the method proposed by Braun and Clarke Results As it was mentioned in the prior section, the results of this study were depicted based on AMO model.
Table 1 Summary of ability challenges stated by the study participants. Open in a separate window. Table 3 Summary of opportunity challenges stated by the study participants. Table 2 Summary of motivation challenges stated by the study participants. Discussion Given the crucial role of HRs in knowledge-based industries, an attempt was made to identify HRMPs challenges surrounding pharmaceutical managers in a developing country such as Iran.
Conclusion In this study, an attempt was made to use thematic analysis to explore HRMPs challenges surrounding pharmaceutical firms in Iran as a developing country. Acknowledgment The authors would like to disclose their sincere thanks to all the interviewees from the Iranian pharmaceutical industry who participated in this study. In this regard, our study serves several important implications for managerial practice from an HRM viewpoint: First, the members of board of company directors and other top managers must realize the fundamental role played by HRM in the success of their organizations and change their perception of a traditional HR to a strategic view.
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